Monday, April 13, 2015

Making the Case (Available): Preparing ACLU Case Files for Research

ACLU of Georgia logo, 2005/2006
annual report (ACLU of Georgia
Records, Series I., Box 8, Folder 40)
This semester I have the great fortune of reviewing a collection donated to the Russell Library by the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) of Georgia. The ACLU seeks to defend the principles and freedoms granted to individuals in the Bill of Rights. To do this, the ACLU of Georgia (along with 52 other ACLU affiliates) advocates for civil liberties by working toward changes in case law and legislation. As a second-year law student at the University of Georgia School of Law, I have been asked to review the ACLU’s records for a variety of legal restrictions - including attorney-client communications, attorney work-product, and confidential materials. It can be difficult for a layperson to know the differences between these restrictions and determine when they apply, so having the documents reviewed by someone with legal knowledge is important. I can scan documents for restrictions more quickly, and, when there is a question about whether a restriction should apply, I know what kind of legal sources (ex. law journals, the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, and the Official Code of Georgia) I should consult for an answer. Working on the ACLU of Georgia’s records has been useful for me as well. I enjoy learning more about the lives and work of people who live in Georgia and I get to review the files of some pretty interesting cases.

As many of the researchers who visit the Russell Library know, wading through documents that are sometimes more than ten years old can be tedious. However, the rewards from working on this collection far outweigh any challenges that this research can bring. What rewards could one possibly get from searching through these records? Well, to begin, the ACLU of Georgia’s records offer unique insight into the legal issues that Georgians faced over the past forty years -- issues that, in many ways, continue to exist. Challenges to unlawful searches and arrests, abuses of prisoners’ rights, abrogation of free speech, including free speech of children while at school, and the commingling of church and state can all be found in these records. The ACLU records offer so much more than what you can read about these issues in a ten-page court opinion! These records contain a unique perspective into the kinds of legal arguments parties filed with the court and the debate surrounding these issues. That kind of lawyerly jostling for a favorable opinion cannot always be captured in the final opinion issued by the court. For that reason alone, the ACLU of Georgia records will be worth a visit.
"Know Your Rights" brochure
(ACLU of Georgia Records, Series I., Box 8, Folder 48) 

Additionally, the records provide an interesting look at the kinds of pleadings, memoranda, and other legal filings that are part and parcel to a case. As a law student, it has been interesting to come across types of pleadings that I have never heard of before. I enjoy having the opportunity to read through those pleadings and get a sense of how lawyers practice on a daily basis. But even individuals without a legal education can find interest in the form arguments take when they are presented to a court and the procedure for doing so.

Overall working on the ACLU of Georgia records has been immensely rewarding, and I look forward to learning more about the kinds of legal issues that affect Georgians and the ways the ACLU has sought to address those issues.

For researchers interested in accessing these records, the case files will be available for research following the completion of the review, expected in early 2016.  Other portions of the records, including administrative, issue, and legislative files, will be opened this.

Post by Shaniqua Singleton, Russell Library student assistant

Wednesday, April 08, 2015

Come In – We’re Open: New Collections Available for Research, April 2015

The Russell Library is pleased to announce the opening of several new collections.

Extensive collections documenting U.S. Senators Max Cleland and Zell Miller, the Democratic Party of Georgia, the Georgia Republican Party, State Senator Eric Johnson and the work of scholar Howard J. Wiarda are available now. We also are opening a number of smaller collections documenting, among other things, Athens-Clarke County politics, World War II veterans, masonic orders, desegregation, Dean Rusk, two prominent legal figures, and early 20th century politics. Follow the links below for full inventories of these collections.

Beth Abney Collection of Campaign Material, 1964-1993
The Beth Abney Collection of Campaign Material includes campaign ephemera from the gubernatorial campaigns of Joe Frank Harris, Lester Maddox and Zell Miller and a 1964 article about Grace Stephens, wife of Congressman Robert G. Stephens.

Leeman Anderson Collection of Masonic Lodge Records, 1848-1914
The Leeman Anderson Collection of Masonic Lodge Records documents the activities of two masonic lodges, Erin Lodge, No. 70, in Meriwether County, Georgia, and Hollonville Lodge, No. 70, in Pike County, Georgia, which were active from the middle of the 19th century into the early part of the 20th century

Arthur K. Bolton Scrapbooks, 1965-1993
Arthur K. Bolton served as the fiftieth attorney general of the State of Georgia (1965-1981). The scrapbooks contain clippings, photographs, certificates and other ephemera related to his life and career.

Eloise Gay Brawley Collection of Richard B. Russell Letters, 1930-1971
Eloise Gay Brawley was a supporter of Senator Richard B. Russell, Jr. The collection consists of letters written by Senator Richard B. Russell, Jr., to Mrs. Eloise Gay Brawley and newspaper clippings pertaining to the activities of Senator Russell and the Russell family.

Patricia Collins Butler Collection, 1938-2009
The Patricia Collins Butler Collection includes documentation of the romance and engagement of Patricia Collins and Richard B. Russell, Jr., in 1938.

Max Cleland Papers, 1947-2008
Cleland represented Georgia in the U.S. Senate (1997-2002), with previous service as a Georgia state senator, head of the Veterans Administration, and Georgia Secretary of State. Cleland's papers predominantly document his career as a U.S. Senator and include constituent correspondence, legislative subject files, files from his committee service, press files, and files from his district office.

Homer Cooper Papers, 1945-2005
Homer Cooper was a professor of sociology, a veteran of World War II, and an active member of the Democratic Party. His papers document his involvement in the China-Burma-India Veterans Association and University of Georgia governance issues.

Charles R. Crisp Papers, 1875-1932
Charles R. Crisp served in the U.S. Congress from Georgia's 3rd district (1913-1932). The papers contain speeches and related notes, clippings, correspondence, and a legal document.

Democratic Party of Georgia Records, 1960-2007
The Democratic Party of Georgia Records include materials from the political organization related to the running of the state party, including materials related to administrative and financial departments, committee files, convention materials, and photographs.

John English File on Dean Rusk, 1966-1979
The John English File on Dean Rusk contains newspaper clippings covering Rusk's time at the University of Georgia and his commentary on foreign policy throughout the 1970s. The material includes a few memos from Rusk to English.

Freedom on Film Oral History Collection, 2007
Freedom on Film Oral History Collection includes three miniDV videocassettes containing interviews from 2007 with Mary Roberts-Bailey, Pete McCommons, and Joe Willie Wyms, who discuss their experiences in the desegregation of Georgia.

Georgia and National Political Ephemera Collection, 1906-1974
The Georgia and National Political Ephemera Collection includes material documenting political campaigns in Georgia, in the United States as well as a small amount of material on Canadian, French, and British political parties. The bulk of the collection is comprised of bumper stickers but also includes pamphlets, brochures, clippings, and matchbooks from candidates' political campaigns.

Georgia Republican Party Records, 1974-1999
The Georgia Republican Party Records contain materials from the political organization related to the running of the state party. The records represent the functions of the state party and include: the election of statewide and national candidates to political office, statewide political planning, gathering of voting statistics, and fundraising for the party.

W. Colbert Hawkins, Sr. Papers, 1965-1969
W. Colbert Hawkins, Sr., was a lawyer in Sylvania, Georgia and a Superior Court Judge, Ogeechee Judicial Circuit. His papers include correspondence with Georgia politicians, the legal community, and the business community (1965-1969).

Cardee Kilpatrick Papers, 1975-2010
Cardee Kilpatrick served Athens, Georgia, as a member of the Clarke County Board of Education (1979-1984), the Athens City Council (1986-1990) and the Athens-Clarke County Commission (1990-2004). Her papers include correspondence, planning documents, campaign materials, speeches, news clippings, photographs and artifacts.

Zell Miller Papers, Series V. United States Senator, 1928-2012, bulk, 2000-2005
Series V. United States Senator documents Miller's service as a U.S. Senator for Georgia from 2000 to 2005. The series includes his correspondence with constituents, committee and legislation files, and press files.

Richard B. Russell Statue Dedication Materials, 1996
The Richard B. Russell Statue Dedication Materials document the dedication on January 24, 1996, of the Russell statue that stands in the Richard B. Russell Senate Office Building in Washington, D.C. The materials include photographs, clippings, a certificate, a speech and related correspondence.

Howard J. Wiarda Papers, 1928-2012
Howard J. Wiarda is a scholar, consultant, think tanker, and political advisor in the fields of international relations, foreign policy, and comparative politics. His papers document his academic and political career, including his research, advising of government officials, and participation in Washington think tanks, and are predominantly composed of research files and writings.

Wednesday, April 01, 2015

Wasps as a Force for Good: Combating Agroterrorism

During Max Cleland’s time as U.S. Senator (1997-2003), the country tackled the ongoing problem of preventing terrorist attacks. But while airport security cracked down nationwide post 9/11, the University of Georgia’s Department of Entomology was hard at work developing alternative means to prepare for potential terroristic threats.

Though not at the forefront of media coverage, the possibility of an attack on America’s food supply was also of national concern. An Atlanta Journal-Constitution article found in Cleland’s papers details that such an attack could be especially harmful to Georgia where agriculture is the largest industry. Of the $5.7 billion per year that agriculture was bringing into Georgia’s economy as of 2001, it was projected that a single cow infected with foot-and-mouth disease could cost $3 billion. With the effects of that kind of isolated incident in mind, a targeted attack on poultry, local crops, or imported grains coming into the Port of Savannah would be unbelievably devastating. If that doesn’t sound bad enough, then there’s the added problem of recognizing infected crops that could be laced with hard-to-detect chemicals. The modern technology to monitor the food supply was not only impractical, but also expensive and often inaccurate.

UGA’s solution: trained wasps.
Photograph of wasp trained to exhibit a head sticking response
(source: Cleland Papers, Series V., Box 29, Folder 25)
Apparently, using wasps to monitor the food supply had first been considered in the 1970’s when UGA scientists began utilizing a particular species’ incredible sense of smell. In nature, these parasitic wasps (Microplitis croceipes, if you speak Latin) use chemical cues to find food and to track the host caterpillars in which they lay their eggs. When scientists at UGA experimented with manipulating this ability so that the wasps would associate food with other smells, they found that, like Pavlov’s dog, the hungry wasps began to exhibit certain behavior when chemicals were introduced, even when food was nowhere to be found. As agroterrorism became a growing threat, it seemed only natural to use these wasps’ powers for good.

Cartoon of wasp detecting hazardous chemical
(source: Cleland Papers, Series V., Box 29, Folder 25)
As potential supporter for anti-terrorism insect funding, Senator Cleland received a bundle of information about the program’s development in 2002. Complete with diagrams and even a cartoon of a sentient wasp looking for clues to track down the bad guys, a report titled “Use of Insects and other Organisms as Chemical Biosensors” details exactly how these unlikely heroes could be conditioned and then put to work fighting terrorism.

The portable system involves wasps in PVC pipes that can be attached to an air chamber containing testing samples. [picture 3] It is also surprisingly easy to train the wasps; they can be conditioned in under an hour and can recognize the presence and intensity of explosives, illegal drugs, and naturally occurring threats to agriculture. (At the time that the wasps were brought to Senator Cleland’s attention, some wasps had already been trained to detect a mold harmful to Georgia’s peanut crops). The species is no bigger than flying ants, and they only use their stingers on caterpillars, posing no danger to allergic humans. So while not as intimidating as German shepherds, wasps have abilities to rival drug dogs. And, keeping it local, they’re native to Georgia, too.

Diagram of detection device employing wasps
(source: Cleland Papers, Series V., Box 29, Folder 25)
In 2005, this research led to the development of the “Wasp Hound.”

For further information on agroterrorism and other issues affecting Georgia and the nation, please consult the Max Cleland Papers, which are now available for research.

Post by Rachael Zipperer, Russell Library student assistant

Friday, March 27, 2015

School Lunch Challenge Tomorrow!

Our School Lunch Challenge event is happening tomorrow at Barrow Elementary School! We're excited to see what menu items our local chefs have dreamed up for the competition.

C.J. Gaan with UGA's Grady News Source put together this short piece spotlighting the event, interviewing organizer Jan Hebbard (outreach archivist at the Russell Library) and competing chef Emmanuel Stone, who will be representing The National.

Take a look - and we hope to see you tomorrow! Tickets for the event are sold out, but if you'd like a spot on the waiting list email -- we'll notify waitlisters by the end of the day today.

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

“Talking Pickup Truck Blues”: Senator Miller’s Defense of an American Icon

During his political career, Zell Miller often drew inspiration from his love for music and his Appalachian roots to make a political point. A prime example transpired during his term in the U.S. Senate when, in protest of rising fuel economy standards and the consequently rising cost of pickup trucks, he combined both strategies, writing a song with musician friend Cowboy Jack Clement called "The Talking Pickup Truck Blues".

The situation was this: for the 2002 Energy Bill, Congress was debating raising CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards. The idea was to reduce foreign oil dependence and promote environmental well-being by requiring better fuel economy. Pickup trucks were grouped together with SUVs and vans as vehicles that got poor gas mileage. Miller leapt to their defense through the Miller-Gramm Amendment, which prohibited increasing CAFE for pickups over the then-current 20.7 miles per gallon standard. He and Clement got imaginative and wrote "The Talking Pickup Truck Blues" to highlight what he saw as out-of-touch D.C. confusing the working vehicle of America's heartland with fancy SUVs.

Jack Clement (left) and Zell Miller (right), in the early 1990s.
(Source: Series VI. Box 7, Folder 83)
Miller's defense of pickups came in two different forms. The first mixed rural pride and the economy. In a floor statement he said the pickup was "the very symbol of the working man. As the pickup goes, so goes the working man and the very heart of this country….The pickup is for the man who wants to work, who gets his hands dirty, and if he can't afford his pickup, then farms, construction companies, and rural small businesses will go under, hurting the American people and the American economy.”

The other defense appealed to the politicians' own self-interest. Miller characterized pickup truck owners as “pickup pops,” in contrast to soccer moms, an arguably powerful voting demographic. The tailgate of a pickup, as Miller saw it, was the “think tank of rural America,” with men gathering at the end of a hard day's work to discuss all manner of affairs. Miller warned that if D.C. raised the price of those trucks, the full force of that group would be devoted to ousting all current politicians from their seats.

Miller made a floor statement on March 6, 2002 in support of his amendment using both arguments and even quoting from his song (listen to a clip of the quoted verse). He ended with the last line of the song: "So help us Lord, and let there be a little wisdom in D.C."  Whether it was concern for the heartland, the economy, their jobs, or divine intervention that convinced the senators, his amendment passed (56 for, 44 against) and the pickup was safe for now.

Zell Miller's senatorial papers were recently processed and are open for research at the Russell Library.

Pickup truck with "Zell Miller for Governor '94" sign.
(source: Series VI., Box 11, Folder 
Post by Adriane Hanson, Digital Curation and Processing Archivist, Russell Library 

Monday, March 23, 2015

The Rest of the Story Book Club Meets Tomorrow (3/24)

What: March Meeting, The Rest of the Story Book Club
When: Tuesday, March 24, 5:30-7:00PM
Where: Room 258, Richard B. Russell Building Special Collections Libraries

Have you ever visited an exhibit and felt you only heard the first part of a truly great story?

If you’re a visitor who wants to learn more about the exhibitions at the Richard B. Russell Building Special Collections Libraries, then join us for this monthly book club with light refreshments and discussion on works connected to upcoming/ongoing exhibitions and programs here at SCL. The monthly titles are selected (and discussions led) by Special Collections staff who help to create these displays/programs, and invite readers to learn more about the topics explored and to take them into new, related areas of interest.

March’s Selection: Revolutionizing Expectations: Women’s Organizations, Feminism, and American Politics, 1965-1980 by Melissa Estes Blair.

Monthly selections are available for purchase at Avid Bookshop, or for checkout through the UGA Libraries. This program is free and open to the public, co-sponsored by the University of Georgia Libraries and The University of Georgia Press.

For more information please call (706) 542-5788 or email Jan Hebbard at

Wednesday, March 18, 2015

I Too Am UGA Event Friday @ Russell Library

The Russell Library's First Person Project has partnered with I Too Am UGA to document diversity on university campuses as part of a national, student-driven campaign. 

The purpose of #ITooAmUGA is to provide students the opportunity to have their stories heard and to advocate for campus diversity and inclusivity for all populations. Students and all participants in the campaign have had their personal stories recorded and archived by the Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies

The group will host a screening of this ongoing video project with light refreshments this Friday, March 20th at 6:30 p.m. in the auditorium (room 271) of the Richard B. Russell Building Special Collections Libraries. For more information visit the facebook event page  or check out the article in today's Red and Black.  

Monday, March 16, 2015

Marge Thurman: Rock of Georgia

Photograph of Marge Thurman from
The Georgia Democrat, 1974
Carl Sanders called her the “Rock of Gibraltar.” Ted Kennedy said that she walked with the wind. And Jimmy Carter, despite their long-running feud, said that she would be remembered for her dedication and leadership. Marge Thurman’s premature death in 1982 drew an outpouring of sympathy from state and national Democratic leaders in support of the woman who had led the Democratic Party of Georgia for almost a decade.

In 1974, Governor-elect George Busbee appointed Thurman the Chairman of the state party, shepherding Democrats through an important transition period for the party, state, and nation. She led the party as they initiated democratizing reforms that reflected major changes in the social and political landscape. Some of the most important and modernizing changes included the creation of an affirmative action committee, the adoption of the first state party charter, and the revision of the delegate selection process for national nominating conventions.

Thurman between Lt. Governor-elect Zell Miller
and Governor-elect George Busbee on the cover
of The Georgia Democrat, 1974

Before she became the Democratic Party of Georgia’s Rock of Gibraltar, Thurman was a youthful and enthusiastic political activist. An Atlanta native, she graduated from Emory University and, at 21 years old, earned a Master’s degree from the Atlanta Law School. In 1956, she joined an all-female law practice in Atlanta and got her first exposure to politics as a Fulton County Young Democrat. A year later, Thurman began her affiliation with the state party when she served as a Young Democratic Committeewoman. That same year, she was elected as general counsel for the Young Democrats of America -- the first woman to hold the position.

Governor Carl Sanders appointed Thurman to the position of Democratic National Committeewoman in 1963. In 1972, however, Governor Jimmy Carter removed her from that position, presumably because she supported Sanders over Carter in his 1970 bid for governor. It was said that after Carter attempted to have her removed, she not only refused but brought boxing gloves to the press conference to indicate her willingness to fight! The heated exchanges continued even after Carter became President. Thurman was said to have removed Carter from the program at the annual Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner in 1981 because Carter had her dropped as a delegate to the DNC in 1980. The feud between Carter and Thurman lasted for over a decade and is illustrative of how colorful Georgia politics could get.

Though she originally had been appointed by Governor Busbee, changes in party procedures found Thurman elected by party members in 1978, confirmation of her decisive leadership and long-term commitment. She was said to have been the first Chairman to have “earned the job through years of grassroots party work” (The Georgia Democrat, 1974). Her dedication secured her status as a loyal, dependable and determined Georgia Democrat. One anecdote in particular became the stuff of legend. During the 1960s, every four years the party held its state convention in Macon. In 1966, when Thurman discovered at the last minute that her driver’s license had expired, she hailed a cab from her home in Atlanta and calmly instructed the driver to take her to Macon. She had a state convention to attend and she was going to get there, no matter the individual cost.

Marge Thurman stands with Col. Charles W. Scott
at the Jefferson-Jackson Dinner in 1981. In the
back, from left, stands Walt Bellamy and an
unidentified man. 
In 1981, Thurman was elected to serve as president of the Association of State Democratic Chairs. Had she lived, she likely would have been elected to a third term as Chairman.

Thurman was a major figure in state and national Democratic politics and was mourned by many upon her death at age 59. Obituaries for Thurman quoted several national political figures, such as Charles Manatt, Chairman of the Democratic National Committee, who recalled debating with her when they were both Young Democrats. In one article following her death, Henry Topel, president of the Association of State Democratic Chairs, remarked that “When it came to civil rights for minorities, to equal opportunity for women, to the Democratic Party principles of help to the poor, she stood second to none. It was said in Georgia that her heart was as big as her hairdo and that was true for us all.”

The Democratic Party of Georgia Records include a significant amount of material --  memoranda, correspondence, planning documents, committee records, convention files, and speech materials -- directly related to Marge Thurman and her tenure as Chairman. The records show a Chairman involved in all aspects of the state party organization. She supported her team and led reform efforts during a transformative period. Once researchers begin to explore these records, they will yield much new information and historical insight into this era, Georgia politics, and women in politics.

Post by Angelica Marini, Project Archivist, Russell Library

Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Taking on Poverty: Senator Miller's Idea for Empowering the South

Zell Miller went straight for a significant issue with his first piece of major legislation as a U.S. Senator: combating systematic, multi-generational poverty in the South. Inspired by the transformation he witnessed as a boy growing up in Appalachia from the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), his bill provided $250,000 for a study to assess if a commission focused on a region known as the Black Belt was needed. The money was matched by Macon businessman Benjamin W. Griffith III to allow for a more thorough investigation.

The term Black Belt was coined in 1901 by Booker T. Washington to refer to a swath of rural southeastern counties stretching from Virginia down to Georgia and west to Texas that had previously been known for cotton production and historically has had a high proportion of African Americans.
Item 1
Excluded from the ARC and the Delta Regional Authority, this area was getting left out of Federal aid. Miller thought it was time to change that, comparing the conditions to the  "Third World" (The Hill, August 8, 2001).

The study, officially called the "Study of Persistent Poverty in the South," was conducted by the University of Georgia's Carl Vinson Institute of Government to look back at 20 years of data from the region. Compared to the national average, they found higher poverty rates, lower levels of education, and poorer health going back generations. Georgia was disproportionately affected, being home to 25% of the poor in the Black Belt.

Item 2
With evidence from the report clearly pointing to a need in the region, Miller introduced the Southern Regional Commission Act of 2003 (S.527) to the 108th Congress on March 5, 2003. The bill created the Southern Regional Commission with a funding of $40 million a year for fiscal years 2004 through 2008. The focus would be on education, health, housing, transportation, technology, and infrastructure. The report was so compelling that two competing bills were introduced to address the same problems: the Southern Empowerment and Economic Development (SEED) Act (HR 678) proposed by Congressman Artur Davis of Alabama and the SECA (South East Crescent Authority) (HR 3618) sponsored by Congressman Mike McIntyre of North Carolina.

Item 3
In the end, none of these bills made it into law. Miller's bill was referred to the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, where no further action was taken. Davis introduced the SEED Act on three different occasions, and the SECA legislation was introduced four times in the House by McIntyre and twice in the Senate by Elizabeth Dole of North Carolina. In all cases, the bills were referred to committees but never came up for a vote.

Item 1: Map showing the African-American Population as a percentage of the total population in the Southern Black Belt, 2000 (source: Box V.86, Folder 20)

Item 2: Map of Georgia: counties in red are areas of persistent poverty, counties in blue are covered by the Appalachian Regional Commission, 2003 (source: Box V.86, Folder 25)

3. Cover of the Study on Persistent Poverty in the South, 2002 (source: Box V.86, Folder 27)

Zell Miller's senatorial papers were recently processed and are now open for research.

Post by Adriane Hanson, Digital Curation and Processing Archivist, Russell Library 

Monday, March 09, 2015